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From Conventional farming to Integrated Farming to Permaculture in 35 years

The idea of permaculturefarmers.com, is to create a productive biological circle, building on a symbiotic relationships between SOIL, PLANTS and ANIMALS, in all projects we make.

35 Years in the making

Below is a number of pdf links with some of my old reports on tropical farming. Some are from project work in Botswana and other is from studies in Denmark. The reports are from another time, from 25 to over 30 years old, and are therefore all scanning’s from the original paper versions, which means that the quality is so and so but readable I hope. 

I developed my way of looking at farming, as a symbiotic biological recycling system, because it was the only way I could build up fertility and yield in the dry sandy Kalahari Desert. I decided to name my farming system “Integrated Farming” because it was integrating as many kinds of plants and animals as possible around a Biogas System. 

The idea was to create a "Productive biological circle, building on a symbiotic relationships between SOIL, PLANTS and ANIMALS". 

It is important to understand that some of the reports are more than 30 years old and in great need of an updating and also to remember that I had never heard about Permaculture when I write this reports. However, it is also interesting that some of the ideas in this old reports, have still not been made fully in practice even by me. 


To see farming as a productive biological circle, building on symbiotic relationships between soil, plants and animals, as it is described in the report “Milk, Fish and Vegetable production in Botswana” Is still the way forward for farming all over the world, and new technologies and methods is making it more and more possible to make this kind of biological farming systems. 

  • (Ps. All links will open a pdf in a safe connection)

This report is from 1988-89 and written in Denmark. It can be seen as a kind of conclusion on my work as a volunteer 1985-88: 

Agriculture developments in the dry parts of Africa + Pictures of Original Figures in the report.


This is report of the first project reports, in the subject, tropical farming, made doing my studies to Engineer in Denmark. It is from 1990:

Desk research on milk and meat production in Kalahari with reuse of water and biological waste.


From studies 1991, this report is describing the whole idea of no waste and recycling of all biological products as it is happening in nature:

Milk, Fish and Vegetable production in Botswana


From studies 1992 this is a second main report from studies, it is a second part of Milk, Fish and Vegetable it is really only paying attention to organization and management: Management of a Farming Project in Botswana

    Kang project 1985: How to construct A Desert Garden

    Kang project 1985-86: Greenhouse-sun sketches

    Project 1987: Farm project in Maun

    Kang project 1987-88: New Agriculture Projects in Kgalahari

    Kang project 1987-88: Report on the garden in Kang

    New project 1988: Private Farming Project in Maun + Fig

    Feasibility study 1988: Shakawe Horticultural Project

    Feasibility study 1988: Shorobe Horticultural Project

    Desk research 1988: Suggestions to Agriculture Policy in Botswana

    From study’s 1991: Development of Poultry in Botswana


Work from 1993 up to 2001 may be added later.

Permaculture reports 2014-15

US-Open Permaculture

AU-Permaculture Design Course

Many PDC courses can be found online some are even free and they are all good in different ways.

The reason that I take a certificate in this two, is they are like coming in extension of each other and give a good complete picture.