A permaculture Farming always work with nature never against nature
In all permaculture farming or regenerative farming as it is often called, it is vital to restore natures biological cycle. A permaculture farm must always be one or more complete biological units that contain the optimal number of plants and animals adapted and support each other's needs in the permaculture farms total biological cycle.
It is important to collect and use the rainfall in an optimum manner. All rainfall should be seen as an energy and an important part of the hydrological cycle in the farm, which carry and distribute nutrition, energy and biology throughout the permaculture farm.
The most important part of a permaculture design plan for a regenerative farm, is to collect and utilize rainfall the most productive way.
All biological materials are used in the same way as it happens in nature. A permaculture farm is regenerative organic farming. Animals and plants are elements of the farm's biological cycle, which is designed to obtain as many symbiosis effects as possible, so the soil food web will be re-established.
How to make a permaculture farm?
In order to restore the natures biological cycle, you must first make a Permaculture Design Plan and from there restore your soil, so it has the soil food web neded for the crops you want to grow.
In the fields, as many perennial plants as possible must be used in the form of herbs, grass, clover, etc. Wide perennial plant belt with as many soil-building pioneer plants as possible, followed by food-producing trees, shrubs and other useful plants, grown in up to 9 layers, as seen in a natural forest.
Plant succession stimulated by perennial pioneer plants for the chop and drop to the ground in the area where they grow or where it does the most good. In this way, we build a substantial forest effect as soon as possible. The forest effect must be able to reach from, plant belt to plant belt, across the fields to create the basis for restoring the soil microbial food chain on the entire field.
The forest effect will create a regenerative breeding ground for food-producing trees, shrubs, herbs, mushrooms, etc., Which will grow and produce by itself many years to come. There must be live plants and organic matter on fields year-round, the organic matter must always cover the entire surface of the ground so that the soil never comes in direct sunlight.
Animals, different animals shall have direct or indirect access to the land each year, preferably several times a year, if possible. It is especially important that the soil is supplied with fresh manure from ruminants as often as possible. The microorganisms found in the stomachs of ruminants is vital for building and maintaining the microbiology in the soil and also the cow manure is a vital part of the biology that builds and maintains the beneficial insects and nature.
Somtimes only parts of a farm is based on permaculture, it can even be only a single field. The permaculture belts can be made with food productive trees and shrubs around buildings and fields. Permaculture projects can be created around a lake, along a river or on the many barren hilltops and slopes, there are many opportunities to make small productive regenerative permaculture projects on all farms.
How permaculture farming different?
There are three forms of agriculture, degenerative, generative and regenerative.
The conventional or chemical farming as we know here in Denmark and most of the western world is degenerative, in almost every conceivable context, using large amounts of a wide variety of unnatural products that in itself is degenerating, plowing almost every year and growing monoculture, all degenerative.
Most western world organic farming also has high degree degenerative activities as plowing and monoculture, but without using so many unnatural products. There are a few, often smaller generative organic farms, but there is no or very few regenerative organic farms, western world style.
Some biodynamic farming is largely regenerative. However, often only generative where the fields are sown and plowed every year. Unfortunately, there are also degenerative activities on biodynamic farming, it applies only to the farms where annual monoculture crops are grown on a plowing field.
Permaculture farming is regenerative when the design and implementation is completed. It is always the goal of a permaculture design plan to make permaculture farming regenerative as fast as possible, and that is done in many places.
From the beginning, it's about reconnecting and rebuilding the agricultural productivity and sustainability. It can only be done by re-establishing the natures biological cycle and soil food web. All rainwater drains must be stopped and water distributed, overflow must be managed in productive lakes and ponds from where the water can be used for irrigation.
Planting as many food productive belts and forests as possible, to pursue forest effects in the fields. Natural animals, plants, insects, microorganisms must live as undisturbed as possible. Use plant cultivation techniques promoting the mycorrhizal network in the soil along with other fungi, bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, worms, insects and so on.
New biological technologies and methods make it possible to achieve a large part of the regenerative power in only 2-3 years. It takes 5 to 10 years to establish the full natural regenerative power, which then operates by itself.
How big is a permaculture farm?
Permaculture projects are always shared into 6 zones, large farms often have all 6
Zone 0 = house and buildings.
Zone 1 = require multiple daily visits.
Zone 2 = require daily visits.
Zone 3 requires multiple weekly visits.
Zone 4 requires weekly visits during the growing season.
Zone 5 requires annual supervision.
It the same for permaculture farming, as for all other forms of farming. Very big = Very ineffective
For the 5 cultivation zones, being allways worked out in permaculture farming, the following applies:
Zone 5 is often so close to being original nature, it can be steep slopes, meadow or forest for grazing.
Zone 4 fields with crops, food productive fences, orchards.
Zone 3 more intensive - requires more attention, animals, fish, bees, berries, and vegetables.
Zone 2 very intensive - compost, poultry for slaughter, large dams, herbs.
Zone 1 all require multiple daily visits, greenhouse, layers, small dams, aquaculture.
A large portion of the zones 1, 2 and 3 which are often vegetable production, maybe in a greenhouse, and it can be aquaculture production of fish and vegetables, production of fruit and berries, as well as, pigs, chickens and other small animals that will fit in to the biological cycle for the farm.
When comes to the larger farms that exist in the western world today, where there are hundreds of cows or thousands of pigs. There are bigger areas in zones 4 and 5, for grazing and production of winter fodder and fodder grain. Getting these, often biologically dead and degraded land to function biologically is a difficult task that will require rapid deployment of the forest effect on all the areas that are in permaculture development. However, this can be done, in only a few years by using well tested biological methods, it will require a complete resetting of the farm.
In most western farms, the slurry is a problem that creates a negative biological effect on the soil food chain. But it is not impossible to get it to work. "The Problem is the Solution" is one of the fundamental ideas permaculture. Farms 50-100-500-1000 ha or even much larger, can be based on permaculture and obtain a much higher production. The largest ready-made permaculture project is 35,000 square kilometers, where the production was three doubled in a few years and it is still rising. That was a project in China with hundreds of thousands of small farms which were all converted at once.
There are many farms in the Australia and the United States on thousands of hectares, with dairy cows, pigs, poultry and livestock farming which is run with permaculture methods, after having a restored biological cycle and, in particular, the soil food chain. "It can be done all over the world"